Development of a Questionnaire to Assess Drug Abuse among High School Students of Isfahan Province, Iran: An Action Research (2022)

  • Journal List
  • Int J Prev Med
  • v.5(Suppl 2); 2014 Dec
  • PMC4475999

Development of a Questionnaire to Assess Drug Abuse among High School Students of Isfahan Province, Iran: An Action Research (1)

HomeCurrent issueInstructionsSubmit article

Int J Prev Med. 2014 Dec; 5(Suppl 2): S146–S153.

PMCID: PMC4475999

PMID: 26157565

Nahid Geramian, Leila Gharaat, Shohreh Akhavan Taheri, Fatemeh Mohebpour,1 Mahmonir Nahvizadeh, Ziba Farajzadegan,2 and Kamal Heidari3

Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer

Abstract

Background:

Considering the problem of drug abuse in Iran especially in adolescents and the youth, recent alterations in drug abuse rate and its trend, the necessity to have local information about this problem, applied research has a determining role in management of this problem and making proper decisions. Therefore, the current study was conducted to develop a questionnaire to assess the status of drug abuse among high school students of Isfahan Province, Iran.

Methods:

This cross-sectional study was conducted out in 2009 in 20 cities of Isfahan Province. A researcher-made questionnaire was developed to determine knowledge, attitude, and practice of high school students regarding addictive drugs and their associated causes. This was accomplished by recruiting 7137 students who were selected by multistage random cluster sampling.

Results:

The designed questionnaire identified the status quo of drug abuse according to age, gender, and different cities of Isfahan Province. We also accessed information about the type of abused drug, the most common causes of drug abuse for the first time, the most important causes of drug abuse, mean age of abusers and mean age at the first abuse, common time and locations of drug abuse, and the most common routes of drug abuse according to gender as well as urban and rural areas of Isfahan Province. Reliability of the questionnaire, based on the calculated Cronbach's alpha coefficient, was 77% considering a cut-off point of 0.07.

Conclusions:

According to the obtained results, the designed questionnaire is capable to assess the drug abuse status among high school students of Isfahan Province. Regarding the importance of teenage years in forming the future behaviors of adolescents and the opportunities provided at schools, it is prudent to pay more attention to interventions in this age group in order to increase their knowledge and correct their attitude toward illegal drugs and strengthening their confidence in this regard. These interventions can have an important role in decreasing the rate of drug abuse in this age group and consequently in the whole community.

Keywords: Attitude, drug abuse, high school students, knowledge, practice, questionnaire

INTRODUCTION

In all countries, illegal drug economy plays a prominent role in national decisions made. Fortunately, cost-effective measures targeting drug abuse treatment are available. This fact increases motivation to conduct studies in order to improve interventions compatible with cultural issues.[1] Various countries have taken measures at society level to change knowledge and attitude of the society toward illegal drugs. These interventions aimed to prevent illegal drug abuse. Usually, focus of these interventions was teenagers and the youth, as these age groups are at more risk of drug abuse due to less information regarding this problem.[2] On the whole, drug abuse is the result of the interaction between person, abused drug, and the environment. Knowledge and attitude toward this problem and its effects, easy access to such drugs, and the nature of the abused drug are among other effective factors.[3]

Drug abuse, as a psychological-social-biologic issue, in adolescents is one of the most critical issues for countries nowadays. This problem involves new chemical drugs (e.g. crack and ecstasy) besides traditional ones (e.g. opium and marijuana). In Iran, even though there is no official report about drug abuse, clinical observations in drug addiction consultation centers and medical centers for drug addiction rehabilitation show that addiction to new psychoactive drugs in adolescents has a high prevalence. Nowadays, instead of traditional single-factor approach to the etiology of drug abuse, multifactorial and interactive causal approaches are considered as the etiology of drug abuse. The latter factors assess related factors to drug abuse. The result of these evaluations is identifying a complex of risk factors as well as protective factors which, respectively, increase and decrease the likelihood of drug abuse.[4] Studies in Iran have demonstrated that mean age of cigarette smoking for the first time is in adolescence. Likewise, such a situation has been reported from the US and China.[5]

Knowledge about the age of drug abuse commence is of paramount importance. Unfortunately, the onset of drug abuse most often stems in adolescence. In a study, 6.9% of high school students in Tehran experienced drug abuse and 16.9% experienced cigarette smoking. The most prevalent used drugs were alcohol, opium, and marijuana.[6] In another study from Shiraz, 30.2% of high school students had experienced cigarette, alcohol, and stimulants and narcotics at least once in their lifetime.[7]

Studies note that age range of addicts and drug abusers has decreased globally. This decreased age range has endangered many adolescents and young people and has raised extensive concern in societies. Therefore, avoiding the problem of drug abuse has detrimental consequences for every society such as demolition of social and economic resources, threat to social security, and various forms of maladaptive behaviors.[8]

The present questionnaire was designed by studying some previously published questionnaires, though it has a different structure. This questionnaire can be used in similar studies. In general, it can be stated that this questionnaire provides useful information about knowledge, attitude, and practice of high school students toward drug abuse. The information yielded by this questionnaire can be used for more in-depth studies and organized, continuous, and appropriate decision makings in terms of future actions and interventions.

METHODS

This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2009 in 20 cities of Isfahan Province. Study population was high school students aged 14–18 years. The required sample size (considering α = 0.05) was calculated as 6489 students, which was increased to 7137 students with consideration of the dropout rate of 10%.

Because there is a difference in student population of the cities of the province and also to provide possibility of generalization of the results, multi-stage random sampling was applied after determining the proportion of each city in supplying the sample size. To determine the denominator, all students who were studying at high schools of the province were summed up which was 227,127 students. High school student population of each city in cities and villages were determined and the proportion of students each city to the whole province was determined. This proportion was multiplied by the sample size, and sample size of each city was determined. After determining the sample size of each city, sample size of urban and rural areas of each city was determined. To determine the sample size in high schools, a list containing names of all high schools was prepared. About 20–30% of high schools (depending on the number of high schools in each city) were selected randomly. The total sample of each city was divided by the selected school, and the sample size in each school was determined. Due to lack of a significant difference between male and female population of the schools, the gender proportion was considered equal. Using the list of students names (using random number table or odd/even numbers) the number of students was determined and the questionnaires were filled out.

To collect the information, proficient examiners were selected, involved people were trained, and data were collected under the supervision of the observer. Coordination was made with the education organization to implement the study. Experienced personnel of the education organization and Health Centers of the cities were recruited to help collect data in a 1-day workshop about the method of collecting data and determining the sample size. To achieve an equal approach in data collection and control of confounding variables by the interviewers, a uniform training workshop was held for 8 h in 1-day. A 1-day workshop for 6 h was held to ascertain meticulous questioning by the observers. Besides these training workshops, a guideline was issued to the interviewers to unify the data collection. In this guideline, it was explained why filling out the questionnaire carefully and completely, and avoiding unanswered questions and emphasizing confidentiality of the information were important. To fill out the questionnaires, first students were briefed about how to answer the questions by the interviewers. Then, the questionnaire was completed by the students. Each student had 20–30 min to complete the questionnaire and after that the questionnaires were gathered and delivered to the researcher.

RESULTS

To determine the real nature of drug abuse in the province, we needed a local tool to gather the required data. Various questionnaires were evaluated, but they lacked sufficient efficiency for this purpose. Therefore, a research-made questionnaire was designed. By referring to different articles, standard questionnaires were extracted and used for the study. The designed questionnaire had two sections: The first section contained general information and answers were marked on the questionnaire. In final analysis, the data of this section were calculated as a percentage. The second section contained three parts of questions related to knowledge, attitude, and practice. The questions of these three items were determined based on the study requirements which included students’ knowledge about narcotics and stimulants. The other was their attitude toward the cause of the tendency toward drug abuse and finally, the practice of the students to determine the prevalence of drug abuse. Hence, we decided to prepare the second section of the questionnaire in three parts. The first part contained questions about measuring students’ knowledge about illegal drugs, short-term and long-term complications of abusing narcotics and stimulants, as well as information about different illegal drugs accessible in the society. In the second part, their attitude was assessed about the causes of the tendency toward drug abuse. In the third part, questions in terms of practice of the students about drug abuse, the type, shape, and the cause of drug abused, the age of drug abuse onset, and the location of abuse were asked. The preliminary version of the questionnaire was designed and evaluated in several sessions with attendance of related experts in the field. In general revision, the questions were edited and finalized.

To determine scales of each question, the questions were scored at three levels.

The knowledge score was the overall correct answers obtained by the respondent. Since the score range was calculated separately for each question and items and related data, the score range of each question was different from another one. The score range in question 1 of knowledge part was one. The scores of the 2nd–7th item for knowledge ranged 0–11, 0–3, 0–5, 0–3, 0–7, and 0–9, respectively. In question 1 of attitude section, the maximum attitude was scored 5, and the minimum attitude was scored 1 and if anything was written in “others” section, the score of 5 was allocated. In question 2 of attitude section, the score of 10 reflected the strongest attitude and the score of 14 reflected the weakest attitude. In question 3 of attitude section, the score of 1 was the most positive attitude and the score of 2 was the most negative attitude. In question 1 of practice section, the “yes” answer was considered as positive practice.

To determine the validity of the questionnaire, its content and face validity were determined through two groups. The questionnaire was handed to 5 experts in the field of drug addiction, and they were asked to provide their suggestions about content and scoring of the questions. Also to determine its face validity, the questionnaire was issued to 10 students. Finally, the questionnaire was revised according to the suggestions made by these two groups.

To determine the reliability of the questionnaire, two schools (a boys’ school and a girls’ school) were randomly selected. Fifteen students from each school were also selected randomly. A total of 30 questionnaires were filled out. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated as 77%. The cut-off point was 0.07. To delete irrelevant questions, inter-item analysis was applied.

In the knowledge section, the items covered identifying various narcotics, short-term and long-term complications of narcotics and stimulants, and familiarity with different illegal drugs accessible in the society. The score ranged from 0 (lack of knowledge) to 100 (complete knowledge) in each variable. To measure attitude of the students, questions were categorized in three parts of importance of different causes in attitude toward drug abuse, physical and psychological changes as a result of drug abuse, and addiction potency of drugs.

The importance of different factors responsible in tendency toward drug abuse was assessed so that each factor was scored with a 5-point scale (1 as the least important and 5 as the most important) by the students. Mean of these scores was calculated for each factor. Drug abuse-induced physical and psychological changes were assessed by asking the students to comment as “agree,” “no comment,” and “disagree.” Then scoring was done as 0 = the lowest attitude score to 100 = the highest attitude score. The questions about addictive potential of drugs were assessed as the percentage of questions answered correctly by the students. After completing the questionnaire design, the questionnaires were delivered to the interviewer teams (each team consisted of an interviewer from the education organization and another interviewer from the Provincial Health Center). These teams had participated in a 1-day workshop to be prepared to do their tasks. All questionnaires were anonymous to reassure students about confidentiality. After gathering the data, they were coded and analyzed using Chi-squared test and t-test in the SPSS software (version 15.0, Chicago, IL, USA). Significance level was considered as α = 0.05.

DISCUSSION

It has been noted in different studies that drug abuse is affected by knowledge and attitude toward drugs. To change a behavior, at first knowledge and attitude toward that particular behavior should be corrected.[2] Iran has more than 15 million adolescent and young people and is considered the youngest country in the world.[9] There are few studies in this age group about their knowledge and attitude toward drug abuse, while attention to these views can help them guide to safer behaviors. Considering the literature review performed before the study, available questionnaires did not meet the objectives of this study. For example, in a study which aimed to determine drug abuse among male high school students in Tehran, the research team designed a questionnaire to measure attitude, behavioral intention, resistance skills against narcotics, etc., But considering the low sample size and male exclusivity of the study, this questionnaire was not suitable for our study.[9]

In another study on male high school students in Faridan, their susceptibility to drug abuse was determined by addiction measurement questionnaire and related factors were evaluated by a research-made questionnaire. Because this questionnaire did not meet the related reliability and validity, did not follow the objectives and hypotheses of our study, had a low sample size, covered only male students, and the study setting which is a small city, the results of this study are not generalizable.[10] The questionnaire used in Mehriz, Yazd among high school students only assessed alcohol and psychoactive drugs and did not have required validity and reliability for our study.[11]

Therefore, by designing a new questionnaire, we determined the current status of drug abuse among high school students according to age, gender, and different cities of Isfahan Province. We also gathered data about the type of drug abused, knowledge about short- and long-term complications of narcotics and stimulants, the most common causes of drug abuse for the 1st time, frequency of the most important causes of drug abuse, mean age of abusers, mean age of drug abuse onset, time and location of abuse, the most common routes of drug abuse according to age, gender, and urban as well as rural areas of Isfahan Province. Based on the results of this study, the designed questionnaire is qualified to measure drug abuse status among high school students of Isfahan Province.

CONCLUSIONS

Using the obtained results of this research, knowledge, attitude, and practice of students toward drug abuse are identified. The organized continuous decision makings and programs can be implemented to raise knowledge and attitude of the students toward drug abuse and to decrease the rate of dependence to drugs. Considering the importance of adolescent age in forming personal behaviors in the future and the opportunity provided at schools, paying more attention to related interventions in teenagers can have a significant role in decreasing drug abuse in this age group and consequently in the society by increasing their knowledge and correcting their attitude toward drug abuse.

Questionnaire of evaluating knowledge, attitude, and practice of high school students regarding drug abuse and some related factors in urban and rural areas of Isfahan province in 2009

Studies show that there is relationship between drug abuse and psychological disorders, escape from home, aggressiveness and violence, theft, delinquency, academic failure and reluctance to study, suicide, etc., Since people's knowledge and beliefs have an important role in the tendency toward drug abuse, being aware of your knowledge and attitude, authorities and policy makers can plan accordingly. Therefore, the following anonymous questionnaire which will be kept confidential is delivered to you. Your complete and honest answers will help programmers the most. General information

General information

◻ Questionnaire number

(please do not write down inside the box)

City name: _____

(Video) Webinar IPI Iran; How to Get Scholarship Research Project on International University

City code: _____

  1. City

  2. Village

Age (in years): _____

Gender: _____

  1. Female

  2. Male

Family size: _____

Interviewer name: _____

Interview date: _____

Father's educational level

  1. Illiterate

  2. Reading and writing

  3. Elementary school

  4. Middle school

  5. High school

  6. High school diploma

  7. Associate diploma

  8. Bachelor's degree

  9. Master's degree and higher

Mother's educational level

  1. Illiterate

  2. Reading and writing

  3. Elementary school

  4. Middle school

  5. High school

  6. High school diploma

  7. Associate diploma

  8. Bachelor's degree

  9. Master's degree and higher Father's occupation

Father's occupation

  1. Clerk

  2. Self-employed

  3. Unemployed

  4. Retired

  5. Others (Please write it down)

  1. Have you received any information about drug use?

    ◻ Yes

    ◻ No

    (Each of the questions 2-7 can have more than one possible answer, so mark as many answers as you consider correct)

  2. Which of the following drugs causes addiction?

    ◻ Ecstasy

    ◻ Sleeping pills

    ◻ Hashish

    ◻ Analgegesics like ibuprofin “pills”

    ◻ Crack

    ◻ Antibiotics pills

    ◻ Shisheh

    ◻ Shireh (opium extract)

    ◻ Morphine

    ◻ Naas

    ◻ LSD

    ◻ Heroin

    ◻ Cocaine

    ◻ Opium

    ◻ Psychological medication (used for treatment of psychological diseases)

    ◻ Do you know any other drugs? If yes, name them

  3. Which of the following signs or symptoms are complications of addictive drugs (e.g., opium, heroin, morphine…)?

    ◻ Myosis

    ◻ Dry mouth

    ◻ Constipation

    (Video) World Water Day 2019 Leaving no one behind

    ◻ Mydriasis

    ◻ Renal damage and failure

    ◻ Diarrhea

    ◻ Brain damage

    ◻ Seeing unreal images that others can’t see

    ◻ Hearing unreal sounds that others can’t hear

    ◻ Others (Please write it down)

  4. Which one of the following complications is caused by stimulants (e.g., ecstasy, shisheh)?

    ◻ Myosis

    ◻ Dry mouth

    ◻ Mydriasis

    ◻ Renal damage and failure

    ◻ Diarrhea

    ◻ Brain damage

    ◻ Seeing unreal images that others can’t see

    ◻ Hearing unreal sounds that others can’t hear

    ◻ Others (Please write it down)

  5. Which of the following is the short-term complication of drug abuse?

    ◻ Anxiety and depression

    ◻ Euphoria and happiness

    ◻ Improved memory and learning ability

    ◻ Aggressiveness

    ◻ Raised self-confidence

    ◻ Pessimism

    ◻ Personality disorder

    ◻ Sleep disorder

    ◻ Forgetfulness

    ◻ Dependence to drugs

    ◻ Others (please write down)

  6. Which of the following are the long-term complications of drug use?

    ◻ Anxiety and depression

    ◻ Euphoria and happiness

    ◻ Improved memory and learning ability

    ◻ Aggression

    ◻ Raised self-confidence

    ◻ Pessimism

    ◻ Personality disorder

    ◻ Sleep disorder

    ◻ Forgetfulness

    ◻ Dependence to drugs

    ◻ Others (Please write down)

  7. What form of drugs is available? (you can choose more than one answer)

    ◻ Yes

    ◻ No

    ◻ Cigarette

    ◻ Chewing gum

    ◻ Tablet

    ◻ Patch

    ◻ Powder (sugar or salt)

    ◻ Drinking liquid

    ◻ Transparent crystal

    ◻ Injection

    ◻ Inhalable vapor of some liquids

    Others (please write down)

Questionnaire of students’ attitude toward drug abuse

  1. What is your idea about the role of each of the following factors in tendency toward illegal drug use? Based on the importance of each factor, please score from 1 to 5

    ◻ 1 (least important) to 5 (most important)

    ◻ Teenagers curiosity

    ◻ Joy-seeking

    ◻ Somatic diseases

    ◻ Psychiatric disorder

    (Video) Drs. Kamiar & Arash Alaei: Human Rights Approach to Health for People Living with HIV/AIDS in Iran

    ◻ Lack of knowledge about complications of drugs

    ◻ Positive attitude toward drug abuse

    ◻ Low self-confidence

    ◻ To eliminate shyness

    ◻ Parents’ divorce

    ◻ Lack of amusement facilities

    ◻ Disability in resolving routine problems

    ◻ Crowded family

    ◻ Having strict parents

    ◻ Presence of an addicted person in the family

    ◻ Friends offer

    ◻ Family disputes

    ◻ Access to drugs

    ◻ Lack of access to consultation centers

    ◻ Low cost of drugs

    ◻ Having free time

    ◻ Presence of an addicted person in residential/educational place

    ◻ Others (Please write down)

  2. What physical or psychological changes occur after drug use?

    Agree, no comment, disagree (please mark one of these items in the boxes)

    In my opinion, drug use causes

    Development of a Questionnaire to Assess Drug Abuse among High School Students of Isfahan Province, Iran: An Action Research (2)

  • Questionnaire of students’ Performance regarding drugs

    Development of a Questionnaire to Assess Drug Abuse among High School Students of Isfahan Province, Iran: An Action Research (3)

  • 9.

    If you use drugs for any other reason, please mention it.

    reason, please mention it…

  • 10.

    What is the name of the drug you used for the 1st time?

    Opium

    Hashish

    Ecstasy

    Crystal

    Morphine

    Crack

    Shireh (opium extract)

    Nas

    LSD

    Heroin

    Cocaine

    Others (Please write it down)

  • 15.

    In what occasions do you use drugs? Before exams

    Before exams

    Before doing sports

    On the street

    At parties

    At home

    Others (Please write down)

  • 16.

    Why did you start using drugs?

    For each item which is true for you, please score

    from 1 (least important) to 5 (most important)

    Teenagers curiosity

    Joy-seeking

    Somatic diseases

    Psychological disorder

    Lack of knowledge about complications of drugs

    Positive attitude toward drug abuse

    Low self-confidence

    To eliminate shyness

    Parents’ divorce

    Lack of amusement facilities

    Disability in resolving routine problems

    Crowded family

    Having strict parents

    Presence of an addicted person in the family Friends’ offer Family disputes Access to drugs

    Lack of access to consultation centers

    Low cost of drugs

    Having free time

    Presence of an addicted person in

    residential/educational place

    Others (Please write down)

  • 17.

    How do you use the drug?

    Sniff (via nose)

    Smoke (like cigarette)

    Oral

    Injection

    Others (Please write down)

Footnotes

Source of Support: Nil

Conflict of Interest: None declared.

REFERENCES

1. Sadeghi M, Ahmadi M, Farhoudian A, Jafari F, Vassel MY. Overview of the Status of Research on Drug Dependence and Abuse in Iran. Spec Issue Addict Stud. 2012;12:27–35. [Google Scholar]

2. Sarami AA, Naderi H. Comparison between participants and non-participants in terms of knowledge and attitude towards drug abuse. Humanity Soc Sci J. 2009;4:76–82. [Google Scholar]

3. Donev GP, Kragelj LZ, editors. Lage, Germany: Hans Jacobs Publishing Company; 2007. Health Promotion and Disease Prevention. [Google Scholar]

4. Khushabi K, Moradi S, Habib M. Risk and protective factors of drug abuse in high school students. Iran J Psychiatry Clin Psychol. 2012;17:313–23. [Google Scholar]

5. Fayaz-Bakhsh A, Babashahy S, Jarrahi L, Rafiei S. Comparison of the knowledge, attitude and practice of Iranian college students about tobacco use in comparison to their American and Chinese counterparts. Int J Prev Med. 2011;2:139–44. [PMC free article] [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

6. Farhadinasab A, Allahverdipour H, Bashirian S, Mahjoub H. Lifetime pattern of substance abuse, parental support, religiosity, and locus of control in adolescent and young male users. Iran J Public Health. 2008;37:88–95. [Google Scholar]

7. Ahmadi J, Hasani M. Prevalence of substance use among Iranian high school students. Addict Behav. 2003;28:375–9. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

8. Rezaei AM, Delavar A, Najafi M. Development and validation of the questionnaire to assess the attitude of 3rd grade middle school and high school students toward drugs. Drug Abuse Stud Q. 2012;6:37–54. [Google Scholar]

9. Allahverdipour H, Heidarnia A, Kazemnegad A, Shafii F, Azad Fallah P, Mirzaei E. Status of drug abuse among students and merging self-control factor with EPPM model. Yazd Univ Med Sci J. 2005;13:24–5. [Google Scholar]

10. Moradi A, Orayzi HR, Rezaei DS, Ahmadi DA. Assessment of dependency of male high school students of Faridan and its related factors in 2005-2006. Journal of Psychological Studies. 2008;4:9–34. [Google Scholar]

11. Khavari Z, Heidari P, Heidari M, Montazeri M. Prevalence of Alcohol and Psychoactive substance in High School Students of Mehriz in Yazd. Toloue Behdasht. 2009;8:33. [Google Scholar]

(Video) Discomfort and behavior; horses of Iran

Articles from International Journal of Preventive Medicine are provided here courtesy of Wolters Kluwer -- Medknow Publications

FAQs

How do you write a research on drug abuse? ›

Create Research Questions to Focus Your Topic
  1. In what ways is drug abuse a serious problem?
  2. What drugs are abused?
  3. Who abuses drugs?
  4. What causes people to abuse drugs?
  5. How do drug abusers' actions affect themselves, their families, and their communities?
  6. What resources and treatment are available to drug abusers?
19 Sept 2022

What is a drug questionnaire? ›

The Personal Drug Use Questionnaire is a 19 items self-administered questionnaire and its primary use is to assess readiness for change in drug users. These instruments (SOCRATES, in its different forms) can be used as useful research instruments to assess readiness for change in clinical substance user populations.

What are the ways to solve the problem of drug abuse? ›

Here are the top five ways to prevent substance abuse:
  • Understand how substance abuse develops. ...
  • Avoid Temptation and Peer Pressure. ...
  • Seek help for mental illness. ...
  • Examine the risk factors. ...
  • Keep a well-balanced life.
7 Jul 2021

What are the effects of drug abuse to the community? ›

Besides personal and family distress, additional healthcare costs and loss of future productivity place burdens on the community. Mental health problems such as depression, developmental lags, apathy, withdrawal, and other psychosocial dysfunctions frequently are linked to substance abuse among adolescents.

What can be done to reduce drug abuse in schools? ›

Elements of Good Practice for Drug Prevention
  • Information dissemination programs which teach primarily about drugs and their effects;
  • Fear arousal programs that emphasize risks associated with drug use;
  • Moral appeal programs that teach about the evils of use and;
21 Jul 2022

How can we prevent drug abuse among youth? ›

Consider other strategies to prevent teen drug abuse:
  1. Know your teen's activities. Pay attention to your teen's whereabouts. ...
  2. Establish rules and consequences. ...
  3. Know your teen's friends. ...
  4. Keep track of prescription drugs. ...
  5. Provide support. ...
  6. Set a good example.

What is the most widely used assessment tool for addiction? ›

The SASSI-3 (Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory, 3rd Edition), is one of the most widely used proprietary screening tools in the United States.

What is the main cause of drug abuse? ›

Peer pressure is a strong factor in starting to use and misuse drugs, particularly for young people. Lack of family involvement. Difficult family situations or lack of a bond with your parents or siblings may increase the risk of addiction, as can a lack of parental supervision.

What are the reasons of drug abuse? ›

Why do people use drugs? People use drugs for many reasons: they want to feel good, stop feeling bad, or perform better in school or at work, or they are curious because others are doing it and they want to fit in. The last reason is very common among teens.

What are the prevention and control of drug abuse? ›

Parental monitoring and supervision are critical for drug abuse prevention. These skills can be enhanced with training on rule-setting; techniques for monitoring activities; praise for appropriate behavior; and moderate, consistent discipline that enforces defined family rules.

How can we reduce the use and abuse of drugs? ›

Know your triggers
  1. avoiding places where you know drugs and alcohol will be available.
  2. surrounding yourself with friends who don't use drugs.
  3. knowing how to resist temptation.
  4. learning how to cope with stress and relax without drugs.
  5. distracting yourself with activities like exercise or listening to music.
4 Mar 2020

What are the causes of drug abuse in school? ›

The study revealed that peer pressure, family problems, experimenting and exposure are the major causes of drug use/abuse by adolescents in schools. Other causes identified were relieving stress, academic failures and freedom.

What are the effect of drug abuse among youth? ›

The earlier young people start using drugs, the greater their chances of continuing to use them and become addicted later in life. Taking drugs when you are young can contribute to the development of adult health problems, such as heart disease, high blood pressure, and sleep disorders.

What are the causes of drug abuse among youth? ›

The earliest influences to smoke, drink alcohol, or use drugs may come from the family. Factors that are related to drug use during adolescence include poor self-image, low religiosity, poor school performance, parental rejection, family dysfunction, abuse, under- or over-controlling by parents, and divorce.

What other social issues are related to the problem of drug abuse? ›

Drug abuse is the catalyst for many major social problems, including drugged driving, violence, stress, and child abuse, and it can further lead to homelessness, crime, and joblessness.

What is the importance of prevention education in relation to substance use and abuse? ›

The inclusion of prevention studies into classroom curricula at a young age has been shown to help to break early behaviors that could be signs of an increased risk for developing a substance use disorder in the future.

What are the benefits of drug education for you as a student? ›

Engaging students in drug education activities assists them to make healthy and safe choices, identifying risky situations, and developing strategies to prepare them for challenging situations.

What are some examples of prevention programs? ›

Preventing Drug Use among Children and Adolescents (In Brief) Universal Programs
  • Caring School Community Program (Formerly, Child Development Project). ...
  • Classroom-Centered (CC) and Family-School Partnership (FSP) Intervention. ...
  • Guiding Good Choices (GGC) (Formerly, Preparing for the Drug-Free Years).

What are assessment tools for addiction? ›

How do these tools help in the treatment of addiction?
...
Honed Assessment Tools for Addiction Professionals
  • Addictions Neuroclinical Assessment (ANA) ...
  • Tobacco, Alcohol, Prescription Medication, and Other Substance Use (TAPS) ...
  • National Institute on Drug Use Screening Tool (NIDA) ...
  • CRAFFT 2.0. ...
  • Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10)
7 Dec 2017

What are the differences between screening and assessment how do teams determine which assessment to use be specific? ›

Screening is a process for evaluating the possible presence of a particular problem. The outcome is normally a simple yes or no. Assessment is a process for defining the nature of that problem, determining a diagnosis, and developing specific treatment recommendations for addressing the problem or diagnosis.

What is screening tool in research? ›

screening tool or "screening" means the administration of a department approved, evidenced-based, or research-informed instrument that informs the assessment and/ or generates needed community-based referrals.

What are the 4 contributing factors that may lead to an increase of learners abusing substance in schools? ›

Risk Factors for High-Risk Substance Use
  • Family history of substance use.
  • Favorable parental attitudes towards the behavior.
  • Poor parental monitoring.
  • Parental substance use.
  • Family rejection of sexual orientation or gender identity.
  • Association with delinquent or substance using peers.
  • Lack of school connectedness.

How do drugs affect school students? ›

New neurobiological research tells us that there are short- and longer-term effects of drug use on students' ability to learn. Certainly, learning is compromised if students come to class under the influence. Motivation to study and achieve declines as the use becomes more regular.

What are 5 effects of drug abuse? ›

Side effects of drug addiction may include:

Nausea and abdominal pain, which can also lead to changes in appetite and weight loss. Increased strain on the liver, which puts the person at risk of significant liver damage or liver failure. Seizures, stroke, mental confusion and brain damage. Lung disease.

What are 3 examples of drug abuse? ›

Commonly Abused Drugs
  • Marijuana Abuse. Though illegal to use or have possession of, marijuana is a commonly abused drug and many people are unaware of its harmful effects. ...
  • Alcohol Abuse. ...
  • Cocaine Abuse. ...
  • Valium Abuse. ...
  • Heroin Abuse. ...
  • Percocet Abuse. ...
  • Prescription Drug Abuse.
30 May 2022

What is the role of community in preventing substance abuse? ›

Communities need to plan and implement research-based prevention programs to address Substance Abuse. Actions to be taken by Communities include identifying, assessing needs and community readiness and motivating the community to take action.

Why drug prevention is important to the community? ›

Prevention is Proven and Cost-Effective Evidence-based prevention programs can dramatically reduce rates of substance use and SUD. Dozens of programs have been found to significantly reduce substance use, some by over 50 percent. Prevention policies can also be effective.

What is the role of government in controlling drug abuse? ›

(a) They regulate and control importation, exportation, manufacture, advertisement, distribution, sale and use of drugs. (b) They conduct tests and make sure that drugs are produced according to the set standards. (c) They investigate to find out the kind of materials that drugs are made up of.

Who is the best defense against drug abuse? ›

Understanding drug use risk factors and spreading the word through prevention programs is the best defense against drug abuse. Parental monitoring has been the most effective way to slow the expansion of drugs in family situations. School drug prevention programs serve a valuable purpose in first time users aged 12-17.

What are the 10 ways to say no to drugs? ›

How to Say No to Drugs and Alcohol
  1. Make an excuse.
  2. Use a little humor.
  3. Change the subject.
  4. Offer to be the designated driver.
  5. Act like you're too busy.
  6. Explain the dangers of drugs and alcohol.
  7. Be honest.
  8. Keep saying no.

What are the ideas of the editor to stop drug use abuse and drug trafficking summarize these ideas? ›

Effective government policies against the smuggling of drugs both within and across the borders. Educating the people on the signs of drug trafficking or drug abuse in someone. Decreasing the demand for drugs within the country by providing alternative medicine in place of drugs that can lead to addiction.

What is the impact of drug abuse in schools and communities? ›

The study indicated that effects of drug abuse include addiction, violence, high-risk sexual behavior, hospitalization for overdoses with some succumbing to drug related diseases, poor academic performance, school dropout, dependency on drugs, among others.

What are the effect of drug abuse on academic performance? ›

First, substance use itself may impair cognitive development which, in turn, reduces academic achievement and disrupts academic progression. Recent studies have shown that heavy adolescent substance use can lead to problems with working memory and attention due to changes in adolescent brain activity [5].

What substances are commonly abused by students in secondary school? ›

Alcohol, Cigarettes, Miraa/Khat and Marijuana were found to be the most commonly abused substances in dealing with substance abuse among students.

What are the effects of substance abuse on the individual? ›

Long-term SUD may affect a person's memory, behavior, learning, consciousness, and concentration. Substances, such as alcohol, cannabis, stimulants, and opioids, are psychoactive drugs that may change an individual's brain function and structure after chronic use.

What is drug abuse and it's effect? ›

Drug abuse or substance abuse refers to the use of certain chemicals for the purpose of creating pleasurable effects on the brain. There are over 190 million drug users around the world and the problem has been increasing at alarming rates, especially among young adults under the age of 30.

What are the examples of research titles? ›

Sample Research Topics
  • Brain Injury: Prevention and Treatment of Chronic Brain Injury.
  • Data Analytics: Translational Data Analytics and Decision Science.
  • Foods for Health: Personalized Food and Nutritional Metabolic Profiling to Improve Health.
  • Food Security: Resilient, Sustainable and Global Food Security for Health.

How do you write a research title? ›

Effective titles in academic research papers have several characteristics.
  1. Indicate accurately the subject and scope of the study.
  2. Avoid using abbreviations.
  3. Use words that create a positive impression and stimulate reader interest.
  4. Use current nomenclature from the field of study.
7 Sept 2022

What is the introduction of drug abuse? ›

Drug abuse or substance abuse refers to the use of certain chemicals for the purpose of creating pleasurable effects on the brain. There are over 190 million drug users around the world and the problem has been increasing at alarming rates, especially among young adults under the age of 30.

What is the introduction of drug? ›

A drug is a chemical that interacts with proteins in the body to affect a physiological function. This is the general idea behind all medicine. Once these chemicals are absorbed into the systemic circulation they bind with certain proteins and this changes the functioning of the cell slightly.

What are some good research topics for high school students? ›

Interesting Research Paper Topics for High Schoolers
  • Discuss and analyze the impacts of a famous musician on pop music.
  • How has pop music evolved over the past decade?
  • How has the portrayal of women in music changed in the media over the past decade?
  • How does a synthesizer work?
26 May 2021

What are some good action research topics? ›

Topics for action research can include the following:
  • Changes in classroom practice.
  • Effects of program restructuring.
  • New understanding of students.
  • Teacher skills and competencies.
  • New professional relationships.
  • New content or curricula.

What is the best topic for students in research? ›

Other Great Research Paper Topics:
  • Technology.
  • Religion.
  • Social Media.
  • Music.
  • Education.
  • Health.
  • Social issues.
  • Environment.

What are the research questions Statement of the Problem of the research? ›

A statement of the problem is used in research work as a claim that outlines the problem addressed by a study. The statement of the problem briefly addresses the question: What is the problem that the research will address? What are the goals of a statement of the problem?

How do you develop a research topic? ›

How To Create A Catchy Research Topic
  1. Seek inspiration. Your research idea needs to be fresh, relevant, and interesting. ...
  2. Be clear. There's nothing that turns off readers more than unclear, garbled language. ...
  3. Avoid jargon. ...
  4. Make it personal. ...
  5. Consider your audience.
20 Dec 2018

How do you prepare a research proposal? ›

Your proposal should include the following:
  1. TITLE. Your title should give a clear indication of your proposed research approach or key question.
  2. BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE. You should include: ...
  3. RESEARCH QUESTION(S) ...
  4. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY. ...
  5. PLAN OF WORK & TIME SCHEDULE. ...
  6. BIBLIOGRAPHY.

What are the causes of drug abuse among students? ›

Top 5 Causes of Teen Drug Use
  • Peer Pressure. One of the main causes of teen drug use is the pressure they feel from friends and even family members.
  • Social Media. Many friends and family members show pictures of using substances on social media. ...
  • The Influence of Culture and Society. ...
  • Curiosity. ...
  • The Desire to be Themselves.
23 Feb 2022

What are the causes of drug abuse among youth? ›

The earliest influences to smoke, drink alcohol, or use drugs may come from the family. Factors that are related to drug use during adolescence include poor self-image, low religiosity, poor school performance, parental rejection, family dysfunction, abuse, under- or over-controlling by parents, and divorce.

What is the main causes of drug abuse? ›

Factors such as peer pressure, physical and sexual abuse, early exposure to drugs, stress, and parental guidance can greatly affect a person's likelihood of drug use and addiction. Development. Genetic and environmental factors interact with critical developmental stages in a person's life to affect addiction risk.

What is the term for the study of what drugs do to the body? ›

In the broadest sense, pharmacology is the study of how chemical agents, both natural and synthetic (i.e., drugs) affect biological systems.

What are the sources of drugs and their examples? ›

The origin of drugs is versatile. It is obtained from many sources such as plants, animals, minerals, microbial, synthetic and biotechnologically. A) Plant Source: It is the most plethoric source of drugs. Almost 90% of drugs are obtained from different parts of the plant.

What is drug and its importance? ›

(drug) Any substance (other than food) that is used to prevent, diagnose, treat, or relieve symptoms of a disease or abnormal condition. Drugs can also affect how the brain and the rest of the body work and cause changes in mood, awareness, thoughts, feelings, or behavior.

Videos

1. 1NHWRF Session 2 Part 2 – Epidemiologic Studies
(hfdb-doh)
2. Iran is More than Persia: Ethnic Politics in the Islamic Republic
(Foundation for Defense of Democracies)
3. 29 January 2021 | The Hindu Newspaper Analysis | CurrentAffairs2021 #UPSC #IAS Editorial Analysis
(Deepak Yadav Education)
4. 08th September 2020 INDIAN EXPRESS and EENADU News paper Analysis explained in Telugu
(Mana La Excellence)
5. 08 and 09-July-2020 | Daily Current Affairs MCQs + Static GK | Crack UPSC CSE/IAS | Alok Pathak
(Beginner to Master UPSC CSE)
6. Benzoyl Peroxide vs Tea Tree Oil for Acne
(NutritionFacts.org)

Top Articles

Latest Posts

Article information

Author: Eusebia Nader

Last Updated: 12/17/2022

Views: 5888

Rating: 5 / 5 (80 voted)

Reviews: 95% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Eusebia Nader

Birthday: 1994-11-11

Address: Apt. 721 977 Ebert Meadows, Jereville, GA 73618-6603

Phone: +2316203969400

Job: International Farming Consultant

Hobby: Reading, Photography, Shooting, Singing, Magic, Kayaking, Mushroom hunting

Introduction: My name is Eusebia Nader, I am a encouraging, brainy, lively, nice, famous, healthy, clever person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.