- Select the right equipment
- Other challenges in Pharma Water Systems
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Cross-contamination occurs whenever any foreign substance is introduced into the water. The source of contamination may stem from equipment in the form of wear particles, residues left on the equipment during manufacturing, or substances from operations such as gear box oil, lubrications, and cooling or heating media. Equipment together with the correct installation of the equipment in the system helps ensure that the water system is a closed-loop system without any risk of contamination from the environment outside the system. Choosing the right equipment helps reduce the risk of cross-contamination in pharmaceutical water distribution loops. Below are a few things to keep in mind to make sure that you select the right equipment and thereby minimize the risk of cross-contamination in your system.
System design and equipment selection help optimize pharmaceutical manufacturing
Having supplied equipment to the global biotech and pharmaceutical industry for decades, we at Alfa Laval have seen the challenges that the industry is facing.When looking at pharmaceutical water systems and specifically at the distribution loops, we see the biggest challenges nowadays are coming from bacteria and biofilm, rouging and cross-contamination. To help our customers solve these challenges while at the same time optimizing the total cost of ownership, we will share our experience in a series of articles.
In this article, we will take a closer look at cross-contamination.
Preventing cross-contamination in pharmaceutical water distribution loops is one of the major challenges facing biotech and pharmaceutical companies today.
The most common cause of cross-contamination is selecting the wrong equipment. By selecting the right equipment, you will not only minimize the risk of cross-contamination, but also will reduce operating costs and downtime due to service and maintenance. Even the smallest design issue of a single component can impact the entire system.
The right equipment not only contributes to delivery of the specifiedquality and quantity of water, but also to the safety, efficacy and quality of highly purified water and, more importantly, of the final product.
Selecting the right equipment
To ensure reliable, consistent production in pharmaceutical water distribution loops, it is critical to select right equipment. Choosing pumps, valves, heat exchangers and tubes and fittings designed to minimize the risk of cross-contamination ensures that pharmaceutical manufacturers can maximize uptime and minimize downtime while protecting pharmaceutical product purity, safety, quality and integrity.
Click on each of the following options to learn more.
Centrifugal Pumps >>
Diaphragm Valves >>
Shell-and-tube heat exchangers >>
Tubes and fittings >>
Alfa Laval Q-Doc >>
Other challenges in Pharmaceutical water systems>>
Centrifugal Pumps >>
Pumps are essential to transport water to the point of use at the right flow and to secure the circulation of water in the distribution loop. The circulation of the water is needed to maintain the desired temperature of the water throughout the entire system as well as to generate sufficient shear forces in the loop. This helps prevent entrapment of debris as well as helps minimize biofilm buildup on the surfaces.
All rotating equipment generates wear. Centrifugal pumps have a shaft seal where a rotating seal turns around an axis on a stationary seal. The small space in between the seal faces must be lubricated with water to minimize direct contact between the seal faces as well as to minimize the generation of wear particles from the two faces grinding against each other. As we all know, these shaft seals are worn down and need to be replaced at certain intervals.
Current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) regulations state that product contact surfaces must not be reactive, additive or absorptive, which means that wear particles generated from the shaft seal must not be added to the distribution loop.
Select a pump with an external shaft seal, which has its outer diameter facing the outside of the pump. The centrifugal forces from the rotating seal will force the water to move from the inside to the outside of the pump. This ensures the development of a lubricating film between the seal faces while minimizing seal wear and generation of wear particles from the seal. Furthermore, it is inevitable that some wear particles are generated from the seal faces; selecting an external seal shaft ensures that any wear particles generated will be transported out of the loop due to the centrifugal forces.
What’s more, pharmaceutical water – especially water for injection (WFI) – is very pure and free from other ions, except from H2O. This makes the pharmaceutical water “dry” and provides limited lubrication of the seal faces. The friction that is generated between the seal faces creates an electrical charge on the seal faces. If seal faces with different conductivities are used, an electrical arcing between the faces takes place, causing pits where SiC is oxidized to SiO2. These pits will further increase the wear between the seal faces and further minimize the lifetime of the shaft seal. This phenomenon is called electrochemical corrosion.
All Alfa Laval UltraPure centrifugal pumps have external shaft seals, which ensure the best possible lubrication of the seal and prevent wear particles from entering the closed-loop system. The Alfa Laval LKH UltraPure pump also has an enhanced SiC shaft seal with the same conductivity for both seal faces; this minimizes the risk of electrochemical corrosion, further minimizes the generation of wear particles and extends the lifetime of the shaft seal.
The Alfa Laval LKH UltraPure pump is also the most energy-efficient pump available today, thereby ensuring the lowest possible energy consumption and the lowest possible operating cost of your system.
Alfa Laval UltraPure
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Diaphragm Valves >>
Diaphragm valves are the recommended valve (by ASME BPE) for pharmaceutical water systems. The diaphragm valve should provide a dynamic seal within the process as well as a seal between the process and the atmosphere. The diaphragm valve should also be able to close, open, divert or control the fluid in the system. Ensuring that the valve provides a seal both within the system and between the atmosphere and the water is crucial in order to prevent cross-contamination.
All components in the water system must be hygienically designed without any dead-legs, crevices or pockets. Diaphragm valves are particularly susceptible to wear and tear. Weir-type diaphragm valves with polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) diaphragms are commonly used in water systems. These typically consist of a PTFE face and an ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) backing. This combination is intended to provide resiliency and compression during valve actuation. However, the PTFE face is prone to wear and tear and generally ruptures before the more durable EPDM backing.
Should a tear occur, a large crevice forms between the two materials, providing a breeding ground for microbes. The crevice not only traps bacteria, but also traps nutrition which makes this crevice or pocket to a suitable habitat for bacteria to grow and for biofilm to develop. This biofilm will later extend into and contaminate the water in your system. Worse yet, detecting a tear in the PTFE face is only possible when the valve is disassembled and manually inspected, after cross-contamination has taken place. This crevice will not only trap bacteria but also cleaning and passivating agents that are used after servicing and maintaining the water system. During the flushing of the system, it will be very difficult to remove these chemicals from the crevice and the system; these will then migrate out from the crevice and contaminate your water during normal operation.
As an alternative to the PTFE/EPDM diaphragm, Alfa Laval offers a high-grade single-layer EPDM diaphragm, which meets the requirements of pharmaceutical water systems. This EPDM diaphragm has proven to be very inert in pharmaceutical grade water and does not leach any colour or chemicals to the water. Furthermore, it is developed for high-temperature conditions and can even stand continuous steaming. The Alfa Laval DV-ST UltraPure diaphragm valve has flat connection surfaces above and under the diaphragm; no steel ridge pinches the diaphragm, which means that no additional stress is put on the sensitive diaphragm material. The lack of steel ridge will extend the lifetime of the valve and will minimize the risk of diaphragm cracks, which generally occur when using two-layer PTFE/EPDM diaphragms instead of a single-layer EPDM diaphragm.
All Alfa Laval DV-ST UltraPure diaphragm valves are fitted with leak detection holes to facilitate detection of diaphragm breakage; this helps reduce the risk of contamination. What’s more, all forged and block valves feature valve bodies with low delta-ferrite content and specified sulphur content, which contribute to superior weld quality and minimize the risk of rouging in your system.
Compact, lightweight and versatile, this safe and crevice-free diaphragm valve has a modular design. This makes it easy to tailor the valve to the exact requirements of individual pharmaceutical water distribution loops. It delivers reliable, contaminant-free performance and ensures the safe, long-term operation of the system.
Alfa Laval Unique DV-ST UltraPure
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Shell-and-tube heat exchangers >>
Shell-and-tube heat exchangers
Shell-and-tube heat exchangers are the most commonly used heat exchangers in pharmaceutical water distribution loops. Bacteria in water systems are typically controlled by heat. In hot water loops, the temperatures are kept high, generally between 55°C and 95°C to prevent bacterial growth. Cold water loops are typically sanitized by heating the water to above 60°C. The higher the temperature, the faster the bacteria will be killed and the system will be sanitized. After sanitization, the water is then chilled to the starting temperature. The faster the water is chilled, the less likely it is that bacteria will grow. This is particularly true when the temperature approaches the interval from 45°C to 35°C.
Heat exchangers are also used to cool water from hot water loops to a lower temperature. This is sometimes required when the water is to be mixed with heat-sensitive medicines, or if it will be used to wash utensils manually in order to prevent scalding the hands of the person washing the utensils. It is also important that the cooling occurs quickly to prevent bacterial growth.
Cross-contamination risks are inherent in the design of shell-and-tube heat exchangers. The heat exchanger uses a cooling or heating media to transfer heat either from or to the pharmaceutical grade water. This water does not have the same quality as the water in the loop. If there is leakage in the heat exchanger, there is a risk that the pharmaceutical grade water will be contaminated. To avoid cross-contamination from the cooling or heating media, double tube sheet shell-and-tube heat exchangers are used; the welding of the inner tubes is made on the outer tube sheet. This design eliminates the risk of cross-contamination because, if a weld fails, there is no leakage out of the system and no contact with the cooling or heating media. A leakage in the weld is also easily detected by the operator since the weld is visible from the outside. Another critical design component is the expansion of the inner tube to the inner tube sheet. If this connection is not 100% tight, there will be a crevice between the inner tubes and the inner sheet. If this occurs, there is a significant risk of crevice corrosion between the two surfaces. This crevice corrosion will later lead to a breakage of the inner tubes, which means that the cooling or heating media will contaminate the pharmaceutical grade water. Unfortunately, crevice corrosion and leakage are seldom visible and therefore very difficult to detect in advance.
To meet the demands of pharmaceutical water distribution loops, selecting shell-and-tube heat exchangers designed for hygienic applications and with high-quality welding and tube expansion is highly recommended. With the Alfa Laval Pharma-line shell-and-tube heat exchanger, we have paid extra attention to high-quality welding and high-quality expansion of the inner tubes. Every welder is thoroughly trained and qualified. Every weld is executed according to established standard operating procedures, and every weld is logged and controlled according to the highest quality assurance practices. We also devote extra attention to the expansion of the inner tubes in order to ensure that there is no risk of crevice formation and crevice corrosion. We also use an extra large bending radius to provide the best possible surface finish in the bending areas; this minimizes the risk of biofilm growth. The Alfa Laval Pharma-line offers high-quality welds and tube expansion, crevice-free design and seamless tubes with smooth surface finishes to minimize the risk of cross-contamination and biofilm growth. All components undergo rigorously controlled manufacturing techniques, including welding, tube expansion, tube bending and polishing.
Alfa Laval Pharma-line
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Tubes and fittings >>
Tubes and fittings
Tubes and fittings should only connect the various components and user points in the loop. By doing so, they must ensure that this connection is encapsulating the water from the environment and has negligible impact on the system. During installation of the water loop, tubes and fittings should facilitate easy welding, cleaning, passivation, rinsing, and draining of the loop.
In a typical water distribution loop, tubes and fittings take up a surface area of more than 90% of the total system, comprising by far the largest portion of the product contact surface area. Tubes and fittings therefore pose the biggest risk of material contamination to the water system. The cGMP (US FDA 21CFR211.65 a) states: “Equipment shall be constructed so that surfaces that contact components, in-process materials, or drug products shall not be reactive, additive, or absorptive so as to alter the safety, identity, strength, quality, or purity of the drug product beyond the official or other established requirements.”
Polishing residues on the surface of tubes and fittings are difficult to remove during cleaning and passivation since they are pressed deeply on and into the surface. These polishing residues will later migrate into your water while operating your water loop. The polishing residues will also generate rouge particles in your system that will further contaminate your water.
During construction or installation of a water loop, the cost of installing the tubes and fittings is typically more expensive than the tubes and fittings. Material quality and wall thickness in the weld ends are of paramount importance to secure good welding. If the welding quality is insufficient, the weld must be cut out and a new piece must be welded in its place with two welds. High-quality tubes and fittings will minimize the need for rewelds. Poorly polished surfaces with polishing residues pressed into the surfaces are difficult to clean. If the surfaces are not thoroughly cleaned, the surfaces cannot be passivated. High-quality polishing, ensuring that the surfaces are free from polishing residues, will facilitate quick, easy cleaning and passivation.
Choosing tubes and fittings that are inert (not reactive, additive, or absorptive) will help minimize the risk of material contamination. Alfa Laval Tri-Clover® UltraPure tubes and fittings are polished and cleaned using proven standard operating procedures that have served the pharmaceutical industry for decades. Alfa Laval only works with proven preferred suppliers of raw materials that are optimized for welding. In the Alfa Laval factory, we conduct thorough quality control of all fittings. For each and every fitting, we ensure chemical conformity, surface roughness and appearance, exact dimensions (including wall thickness, ovality, square ends, etc.), marking, packaging and labelling. Alfa Laval tubes and fittings also meet the requirements of ASME Bioprocessing Equipment (BPE) Certification.
Alfa Laval UltraPure tubes
Alfa Laval UltraPure fittings
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Alfa Laval Q-doc:Well documented to safeguard quality
To reduce contamination risks, downtime and costs, all Alfa Laval UltraPure equipment and components for the pharmaceutical industry are backed by Alfa Laval Q-doc. Based on Good Documentation Practice (GDP), Q-doc is a comprehensive documentation package for Alfa Laval UltraPure pumps, valves, heat exchangers, and tube and fittings. It provides full transparency of the entire equipment and replacement parts supply chain – from raw material to final delivery.
Alfa Laval Q-doc comprises a conformitydeclaration, material certificates, relevant test certificates and information about necessary Alfa Laval spare parts kits for standard components. With Q-doc, customers receive transparent and well-documented quality assurance of the sourced equipment. It traces every change in material or manufacturing procedures, including details about product contact parts such as steel and gaskets. This assures product safety as well as facilitates purchasing, installation, qualification, validation and change control procedures. In a word, Q-doc safeguards pharmaceutical water distribution loops against cross-contamination, providing long-term peace of mind.
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Other challenges in Pharmaceutical Water Systems
How to prevent rouge formation in pharmaceutical water systems
How to reduce the risk of biofilm buildup in your pharmaceutical water system
How do Pharmaceuticals prevent cross contamination? ›
Disinfect: Regular cleaning and sanitization is the core of preventing pharmaceutical contamination. In addition to thoroughly cleaning and disinfecting the facility, cleanliness, and hygiene of workwear is also important.What is cross contamination and contamination Pharma? ›
Pharmaceutical product cross-contamination refers to the. process by which foreign chemical, microbial, or physical. substances are unintentionally transferred from one. substance or object to medicines with harmful effects that. might affect the purity and quality of the pharmaceutical.What are the factors that can cause contamination of pharmaceutical products? ›
- Materials: The quality, handling and control of raw materials can also cause pharmaceutical contamination:
- Improper handling and storage.
- Poor labelling, sampling and testing of raw materials.
- Degradation of materials due to environmental conditions.
- Using materials that do not meet acceptance guidelines.
The prevention of cross-contamination is also accomplished by the use of positive air barriers (to exclude other products), dust extractors and containment hoods (to trap and remove dust) during processing.What are 4 methods for preventing cross contamination? ›
- use different utensils, plates and chopping boards for raw and cooked food.
- wash utensils, plates and chopping boards for raw and cooked food thoroughly between tasks.
- make sure you do not wash raw meat.
- wash your hands after touching raw food and before you handle ready-to-eat food.
To prevent this: Wash hands with soap and hot water before and after handling food, and after using the bathroom, changing diapers; or handling pets. Use hot, soapy water and paper towels or clean cloths to wipe up kitchen surfaces or spills. Wash cloths often in the hot cycle of your washing machine.What are the 3 types of cross contamination? ›
There are three main types of cross contamination: food-to-food, equipment-to-food, and people-to-food.What are the 4 types of contamination? ›
Food manufacturers must do everything possible to avoid contamination and produce safe products, knowing the dramatic consequences if they don't. There are four types of food contamination: physical, biological, chemical and allergenic. This blog explains these categories and provides tips on how to avoid them.What are examples of cross contamination? ›
Some examples are: Touching raw meats then handling vegetables or other ready-to-eat foods without washing hands between tasks. Using a food soiled apron or towel to wipe your hands between handling different foods. Failing to change gloves between handling different foods.What are the 5 causes of cross contamination? ›
- using the same knife or chopping board to cut both raw and ready-to-eat foods.
- using the handwash basin for defrosting food or placing dirty utensils and equipment.
- storing food uncovered or on the floor of the fridge or freezer.
- storing raw food above ready-to-eat food.
What are pharmaceutical contaminants in water? ›
These can include: pharmaceuticals and personal care products, organic wastewater compounds, antimicrobials, antibiotics, animal and human hormones, endocrine disrupting compounds, as well as a variety of domestic and industrial detergents.What is the most common method of contamination? ›
- Nose, mouth, or eyes to hands to others: Germs can spread to the hands by sneezing, coughing, or rubbing the eyes and then can be transferred to other family members or friends. ...
- Hands to food: ...
- Food to hands to food: ...
- Infected child to hands to other children: ...
- Animals to people:
These include Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) guidance from authorities like the FDA and WHO. A key principle in the GMP guide is that equipment used in pharmaceutical manufacturing should, among other things, prevent contamination of the product if it is used as intended.What is cross-contamination in GMP? ›
Cross-Contamination – Contamination of a starting material, intermediate product, finished product with another starting material or a product.What is one way to minimize cross-contamination when preparing for a body are procedure? ›
- Gloves should be changed when it is necessary. ...
- Hands should be washed often. ...
- Surfaces should be disinfected often. ...
- Reusable tools and equipment should be cleaned before being sterilized. ...
- Use disposable “single-use” supplies whenever possible.
- Read labels and be aware of allergens. ...
- Wash hands with soap and water and change gloves before prepping food. ...
- Wash, dry, and sanitize food prep areas. ...
- Use separate cooking utensils and a separate cutting board when preparing allergen-safe foods.
Use Separate Equipment to Prevent Cross-Contamination
Use separate plates and utensils for cooked and raw foods. Use more than one cutting board – one for fresh produce and one for raw meat, poultry or seafood. Be sure to replace these cutting boards once they get cracks or excessive cuts from your knives.
You can also buy pre-aliquoted reagents.
- Use sterile labware. ...
- Use filter tips and change them often. ...
- Check your cells often. ...
- Bleach your contaminated samples. ...
- Use good labeling practice.
Thoroughly wash hands after handling raw meat and before touching other food or equipment. Raw and cooked/ready-to-eat foods must be kept separate during delivery. Use separate refrigerators for raw meat and cooked/ready-to-eat foods where possible.Why is preventing cross contamination important? ›
Preventing cross contamination
Cross contamination is when harmful bacteria are accidentally transferred from raw food to ready-to-eat food. Most cases of food poisoning are caused by bacteria from raw food coming into contact with food that is ready to eat.
What are the 4 major contamination hazards? ›
- Microbiological hazards. Microbiological hazards include bacteria, yeasts, moulds and viruses.
- Chemical hazards. ...
- Physical hazards. ...
Summary. Food products are rich in nutrients required by microorganisms and may become contaminated. Major contamination sources are water, air, dust, equipment, sewage, insects, rodents, and employees.What are the 4 most common types of water contamination? ›
Water pollutants include chemicals, bacteria, parasites, and trash. As water is a universal solvent, it is very vulnerable to pollution because water can dissolve more substances than any other liquid found on Earth.What are the two types of water contamination? ›
These contaminants may be naturally occurring or man-made. Examples of chemical contaminants include nitrogen, bleach, salts, pesticides, metals, toxins produced by bacteria, and human or animal drugs. Biological contaminants are organisms in water. They are also referred to as microbes or microbiological contaminants.What are the 4 different ways in which water gets contaminated? ›
Water gets contaminated by following ways Disposal of: Sewage from houses Chemicals from industrial wastes Pesticides and fertilizers used in agriculture
- Sewage from houses
- Chemicals from industrial wastes
- Pesticides and fertilizers used in agriculture
It is most likely to happen when raw food touches or drips onto ready-to-eat food, equipment or surfaces.What are the causes and risk of cross contamination? ›
It usually occurs from raw foods to ready-to-eat products (RTE) or between products that contain allergens and allergen-free products. Cross-contamination can cause food poisoning when harmful bacteria are transferred to RTE products that do not undergo further processing to eliminate bacteria.How can we reduce pharmaceuticals in water? ›
Drug take back programs, public education on proper disposal, and regulations to limit large-scale medicine flushing at hospitals and nursing facilities are important first steps that can greatly reduce the amount of contaminants entering our waterways.What are the 5 main contaminants of water? ›
Among the top contaminants in your drinking water are nitrates, bacteria and viruses, arsenic, fluoride, and lead.How do you filter pharmaceuticals from water? ›
Two such methods, reverse osmosis, and nanofiltration, have been proven to rid up to 99.99 percent of pharmaceuticals in drinking water. That's good news worth cheering for. Two such methods, reverse osmosis, and nanofiltration, have been proven to rid up to 99.99 percent of pharmaceuticals in drinking water.
What do you mean by cross contamination? ›
Cross-contamination is the transfer of harmful bacteria to food from other foods, cutting boards, and utensils if they are not handled properly.What is the first step in achieving contamination control? ›
The first step in contamination control is to identify which contaminants pose the greatest risk. Solid particles, water and air are the most common contaminants. Solid contaminants include dirt, metal from internal machine wear and debris.What is the best example of contamination? ›
Examples of Physical Contamination
Common examples of physical contaminants include hair, bandages, fingernails, jewelry, broken glass, metal, paint flakes, bone, the body parts of pests, or pest droppings.
Good Manufacturing Practices are a critical system that all manufacturing facilities should implement. They help ensure the proper design, monitoring, and control of the manufacturing processes and facilities. Companies that adhere to these standards help to assure the identity, strength, and quality of their products.What are the 5 principles of GMP? ›
Good manufacturing practices (GMPs) help to ensure the consistent quality and safety of products by focusing attention on five key elements, which are often referred to as the 5 P's of GMP—people, premises, processes, products and procedures (or paperwork).What are the types of contamination? ›
There are four main types of contamination: chemical, microbial, physical, and allergenic. All food is at risk of contamination from these four types.What is cross contamination in quality control? ›
Cross-contamination is the contamination of the starting, intermediate products, or finished products with other starting materials or products during production.What do OSHA standards require in order to prevent cross contamination? ›
Cross contamination of the workplace can be prevented by removing or decontaminating PPE and washing hands before exiting the work zone. To prevent cross contamination at home, workers should wash their hands and faces at the end of a work shift and change into clean clothes and shoes.What step in the process is the most important to avoid cross contamination? ›
Cleaning and removing visible debris, dirt, and dust from surfaces and objects is a critical first step to preventing cross-contamination. It's important to remember that you should always clean before disinfecting or sanitizing surfaces.How do you clean cross contamination? ›
Always clean top to bottom, back to front, left to right, and floors last. This procedure helps eliminate dirt, germs, and pathogens from being spread to previously cleaned areas. Make sure you are keeping brushes for kitchen and bath separate to minimize spreading mold, mildew, e-Coli, and other pathogens.
How can you prevent cross contamination when handling medication? ›
Disinfect: Regular cleaning and sanitization is the core of preventing pharmaceutical contamination. In addition to thoroughly cleaning and disinfecting the facility, cleanliness, and hygiene of workwear is also important.How can we prevent microbial contamination in pharmaceutical products? ›
Maintain aseptic process rooms at a high differential air pressure. Do not set ambient humidity or temperature at an uncomfortable levels. Based on product risk assessment / facility, use Restricted Access Barrier System, Isolators Systems, Ventilated Cabinets, etc. to help contain microorganisms.How would you help to prevent pharmaceutical corrosion in pharma industry? ›
Coating and Lining
Coatings or linings that are non-metallics should be used to combat metal corrosion. Electrical cladding, organic coatings, and electroplating can also be employed. By coating the anodes and cathodes with barrier coatings or by isolating them both, galvanic corrosion can be controlled.
- Quickly clean up all spills.
- Maintain a tidy work area.
- Frequently wash hands.
- Wear a laboratory coat.
- Never smoke inside the laboratory.
- Label containers correctly.
- Wear eye protection and other personal protective equipment (PPE)
Wearing gloves, hairnets, pants, lab coats, and close-toed shoes. This equipment protects both the person wearing it and reduces contamination. Personnel should never reuse disposable gloves and they should always change them when moving between samples to further reduce the risk of contamination.How can we prevent microbial contamination in water? ›
How Can We Protect Against Microbial Contamination? Some microbial contaminants can be removed by water treatment coagulation and filtration processes. Disinfection has been proven effective against bacteria and viruses, but protozoa, such as Cryptosporidium, are very resistant to chlorination alone.What is contamination in pharmaceutical setting? ›
Contamination is defined as the undesired introduction of impurities of a chemical or microbiological nature, or of foreign matter, into or onto a raw material, intermediate, or API (Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient) during production, sampling, packaging or repackaging, storage or transport.What is the three methods of prevention of corrosion? ›
Galvanising, tinning, electroplating, anodising and alloying are the different methods in which a metal is coated with a noncorrosive metal to prevent corrosion.What are the most common methods of preventing corrosion? ›
- BARRIER COATINGS. One of the easiest and cheapest ways to prevent corrosion is to use barrier coatings like paint, plastic, or powder. ...
- HOT-DIP GALVANIZATION. ...
- ALLOYED STEEL (STAINLESS) ...
- CATHODIC PROTECTION. ...
- EONCOAT – A NEW WAY TO PROTECT ASSETS FROM CORROSION.
- Barrier coatings. Barrier coatings aim to prohibit water, oxygen and other chemicals from making contact with the substrate. ...
- Inhibitive coatings. ...
- Sacrificial coatings. ...
- Let's talk.
What are the 7 safety precautions? ›
- Keep work areas clean. ...
- Use the proper tool for the job. ...
- Always wear the proper PPE for the work task. ...
- Never work on live equipment. ...
- Make sure chemicals are properly labeled and stored.
- Communicate hazards to other personnel. ...
- Stop work when needed to address hazards.
- STAY ALERT - and stay alive. ...
- WEAR THE RIGHT CLOTHES - work clothes should fit properly. ...
- USE THE RIGHT TOOLS - if you need a hammer, get a hammer. ...
- LEARN HOW TO LIFT - Lifting takes more than muscle; it is an art.
- Elimination: Physically remove the hazard.
- Substitution: Replace the hazard.
- Engineering controls: Isolate people from the hazard.
- Administrative controls: Change the way people work.
- Personal protective equipment (PPE): Protect the worker.
- Parent or family engagement.
- Family support.
- Parental disapproval of substance use.
- Parental monitoring.
- School connectedness.
- avoiding places where you know drugs and alcohol will be available.
- surrounding yourself with friends who don't use drugs.
- knowing how to resist temptation.
- learning how to cope with stress and relax without drugs.
- Proper vetting of ingredient suppliers by a supplier quality unit.
- Quality incorporated into the entirety of the manufacturing, packaging, warehousing, and distribution process.